CH. LXXX THE AWAKENING OF PERSIA 473 empire. For her own ends she decided to construct a line from Constantinople across Asia Minor to Baghdad. It was proposed that it should be continued thence to India by the British Government; and, in view of the failure in the Red Sea, this scheme was gladly adopted. Some years were consumed in negotiations and surveys, but in 1863 the Overland Telegraph Convention was concluded at Constantinople. Owing to the feeble con- trol exercised by Turkey over the tribes to the south of Baghdad and the malarious climate (although these obstacles proved to be less serious than had been anticipated), it was decided to provide an alternative line through Persia to connect at Bushire with the cable to be laid down the Persian Gulf. The First Telegraph Line in Persia, 1864.—Accord- ingly, negotiations were opened with the Shah for the construction by British officers of a circuitous line running from the Persian frontier near Baghdad to Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Teheran, and from the capital to Bushire. At first the proposal met with strenuous resistance from the reactionary party, but the Shah determined to benefit by the scheme, and by the end of 1864 the first single-wire line was constructed. The obstacles to be overcome were great, consisting in depredations by the tribes and ignorant obstruction by the Persian local officials ; but the British officers and non-commissioned officers were a splendid body of men, and thanks to their tact and capacity the original con- cession was repeatedly modified and important develop- ments were made. The Indo-European Telegraph Lines.—In 1870 a through double line was constructed by Messrs. Siemens Brothers from London to Teheran, running across Germany and Russia to Tabriz, and joining the already existing line at Teheran. The lines worked by the Indo- European Telegraph Company, as it was termed, com- pleted direct communication between London and India, Bushire being connected by submarine cable with Jask; and from that station with Karachi both by a land line and by cable.